Today I just stumbled across this by accident, I had just downloaded the new safety scanner from Microsoft, as well as many other things, but I could not remember the file name. I clicked on the option at the bottom of the screen which said show all downloads. There it opened another browser window and in the location bar it had chrome://downloads.
This view is very handy as it shows you the filename, where you downloaded it from and when you downloaded it. It also gives you the opportunity to open the file in the folder it's currently stored (Username -> My Documents -> Downloads), as well as giving the option to remove the file from the list. This list shows everything you have downloaded so far, even if you have removed the file, this will still show you when you downloaded the file/application etc.
I have had a quick look around you can also use chrome://extensions, this enables you to view, configure your extensions. There is also Chrome://bookmarks, which surprise surprise show you your bookmarks.
I am sure there are loads more, I am always interested in feedback so feel free to add any comments, or you can mail me here, also if you would like to submit a quick tip with full credit and links back to your site then also feel free to contact me.